Friday, February 9, 2018

A New Medieval Runic Inscription in North America?

Just this week, I had the privilege to examine yet another, previously unknown runic inscription here in North America.  It is a very short inscription and only had a short time to spend with it, but what I saw during my visit was very interesting indeed!  The short, three-rune inscription was carved into a large glacial erratic boulder of granite gneiss that had a very flat top surface providing a perfect substrate to carve on.  These runes are the largest I've ever seen at approximately six inches in height.  The three runes are well carved and easily read as a bilateral "a" (Meaning the angled bar in the center appears equally on both sides of the vertical line called a "stave."), an open looped "r" (Meaning the lower line of the upper loop angling back to the middle does not touch the vertical stave), and a so-called "thorn" rune.  One other interesting aspect of the "r" rune is the line angling to the lower right forming the top loop does extend and meet the top of the vertical stave.  This is the first time I have ever seen an "r" rune like this after reviewing hundreds of Scandinavian and North American runic inscriptions. 

Putting all the runes together, the inscription appears to spell "Arth."  However, I will let the runological experts make the call on this one as it is not appropriate for me to portray myself as an expert in this field.  I know enough about runes to be dangerous, but I want to make it clear I am not a qualified expert.  What I am an expert on is commenting on how the runes were carved into rock as hard as granite, which was clearly using metal tools, as I have carved and painted my own rune stone into a granite gneiss boulder myself.

As I carefully examined the carvings, I was shocked to see something I never expected.  At the end of the lower right leg of the "r" rune was an intentionally made, large hole or dot, exactly like the one on line one, in the word "göter", on the Kensington Rune Stone!  This particular anomaly in the KRS inscription was interpreted by Richard Nielsen and myself, to be part of what we called a "Grail Code."  This was because the first four runes that were singled out by the carver on the KRS, with either dots or short strokes, in sequence, spelled, "GRAL" or "Grail."  Whether there is any connection to the KRS, or the Templars/Cistercians who created it, is unknown.

Lastly, I have to say that the carvings did look weathered, but it was a very brief look and it could, in fact, be recently made.  I am reticent to offer any age for the inscription until I am able to spend more time studying it to see if there is a scientific way to determine a relative age.  This is also the reason I am not going to reveal its location to ensure the inscription is not altered in any way by potential vandalism.  Having said that, I would entertain inquires from legitimate scholars that might be interested in seeing the inscription as more work definitely needs to be done.


On February 6, 2018, I had the opportunity to examine a brand new, three-character, runic inscription carved into a large glacial boulder of granite gneiss. 


The three runes that make up the inscription are a bilateral "a", an open looped "r", and a very well carved "thorn" rune, which typically when found at the end of a word typically represents the "th" sound.



This picture was taken at an angle to the inscription that highlights a deep hole the carver made at the end of the lower right leg of the "r" rune.  This feature is exactly the same as the dot the carver made in the same location in the first "r" rune in the word "göter", on line one, in the Kensington Rune Stone inscription. 


There is a clear and distinct intentionally made dot at the end of the lower right leg of the "r" rune in the word "göter", on line one of the Kensington Rune Stone inscription.


A closer view of the man-made dot at the end of the lower right leg of the "r" rune, in the word "göter", on line one of the Kensington Rune Stone inscription.


In May of 2005, it took 40 hours to carve this rune stone commemorating the book I co-authored with Richard Nielsen entitled, "The Kensington Rune Stone: Compelling New Evidence."  

The following photos of the most recent renditions of the ever-evolving translation of the Kensington Rune Stone are posted here in response to a troll's attempt to undermine the legitimacy of numerous intentional punch marks and short strokes added to numerous runes AFTER the inscription was carved.  The troll attempted to post a hastily written, angry rebuttal letter by a scholar who tried to use his perceived authority to play fast and loose with man-made features added by the carver.  This letter came on the heels of a paper I wrote on my microscopic 3D imaging work that documented these features whose impact on the authenticity of the KRS was vitally important.  You can read my paper at the following link:  http://kensingtonrunestone.us/html/rune_stone_3-d_study.html 

What is important to notice here is both Henrik Williams and Richard Nielsen peer-reviewed and endorsed the Dotted R and several of the other dots and short lines as intentional and meaningful aspects of the inscription Nielsen and I published in our 2006 book, The Kensington Rune Stone: Compelling New Evidence.  In some cases they served linguistic purposes, in others they were part of various codes, all reviewed and accepted by both scholars.  However, in 2007, the pair suddenly reversed course and decided the modifications were not the important features we had already published.  The new interpretation was they were "guide marks", "decorations", or in the case of the vitally important Dotted R on line 6, was the result of a "dropped tool mark."  I'm still amazed at how the clumsy carver was skilled enough to accidentally drop his chisel so the point just magically hit the perfect spot to create a dot that proves the authenticity of the KRS all by itself.  What are the odds...?    

The point of posting the two translations is to show how the two scholars played fast and loose with the physical features on the inscription.  In 2010, in the word "death" on line 8, they published two dots in the "thorn" runes and I'm convinced the second dotted "thorn" was going to be the big discovery they planned to make.  Unfortunately, Nielsen was denied access and Williams, reportedly, threw a fit.  Later that evening during his lecture at the Alexandria Community College, we all heard a clearly agitated Williams complain about their treatment at the museum.  I suspect because their plans to discover the Dotted "thorn" together were foiled by the museum, they apparently decided to make the dots in both the Dotted R, and the Dotted "thorn", go away.   This is evidenced by the 2014 translation as seen below.  

The problem with all of this is here we have two scholars, apparently, trying to play with physical aspects of the inscription to serve an agenda.  They certainly have the right to change their mind about interpretations of what these man-made features represent, as long as they provide proper evidence to justify and support the new opinions.  However, they cannot decide what are man-made physical features on the stone and what are not.  It is inappropriate and unethical.  

Sadly, Richard Nielsen passed away in July of 2016, and can no longer comment on the information I have presented.  However, I invite Professor Williams to defend his and Nielsen's actions by responding to my comments on this blog with facts I may not aware of, but I would not hold my breath he will do.  In the end, this type of behavior by scholars hurts not just the Kensington Rune Stone, but all of us who simply want to know the truth.     


This translation of the Kensington Rune Stone inscription was published by Henrik Williams and Richard Nielsen in 2010.


A close-up view of line eight shows a two dotted "thorn" runes in the word "death."


This translation of the Kensington Rune Stone inscription was published by Henrik Williams and Richard Nielsen in 2014.


A close-up view of line eight shows the once present dotted "thorn" runes in the word "death" have been removed.








Thursday, January 4, 2018

Kensington Rune Stone Visitors Center is Officially Open


The Grand Opening of the Kensington Rune Stone Visitors Center at the Ohman Farm, in Kensington, Minnesota, was held on Wednesday, January 3, 2018.  It was minus 1 degree on clear and sunny day and I made the two-hour trip up from the Twin Cities with John Freeburg, and our driver, Darwin Ohman, grandson of the discoverer of the Kensington Rune Stone.  Darwin and I have made this drive to the farmstead many times over the years for many lectures, various meetings and of course to perform different areas of research.  Today's visit was to celebrate a milestone in the history of the artifact by finally having a modern interpretive and visitor's center where the artifact was first discovered in the fall of 1898.  In my view, the Kensington Rune Stone is the single most important historical artifact ever discovered on this continent that for all intents and purposes was the beginning of the founding of what would become the Untied States of America. 


It was a cold (minus 1 degree) and clear day when the Grand Opening of the Kensington Rune Stone Visitors Center at the Ohman Farm was held on January 3, 2018.

The three of us arrived early as the Director of Douglas County Parks who was responsible for the project, Brad Bonk, greeted us at the door with a big smile.  Darwin and I had met with Brad multiple times over the past two years offering information about the history of the family, and research on the artifact, as the project moved forward.  The building of steel framing, concrete and wood was simple and elegant with the east room dedicated to the story of the stone, the inscription, and runes in general.  One thing that especially pleased me was to see thee Hooked X in the interpretive displays.  Some people wanted the Hooked X and some of the other  controversial symbols eliminated from the displays, but fortunately, Brad and other consultants chose to keep the runic displays true to the symbols found on the artifact.


Inside the interpretive display room myself, John Freeburg, and Darwin Ohman stand behind a replica of the Kensington Rune stone. 

Shortly before 2:00 p.m., a steady stream of local politicians and media trickled in and at 2: p.m. sharp, the brief ribbon-cutting ceremony was underway.  Within less than 10 minutes, the bright red ribbon was cut and everyone was back inside.  After downing a hot cup of coffee and an hour or so of glad-handing, it was time to make the two-hour trek back home.  On the ride back, the three of us talked about not just how impressed we were with the facility, but how it was still only one positive step in a much longer journey.  For me, the highlight of the entire day was seeing the smile on Darwin Ohman's face knowing that exoneration of his grandfather's reputation was inching closer to universal acceptance. 


Director of Douglas County Parks Brad Bonk, and other dignitaries, prepare to cut the red ribbon at the ceremony in front of the new Visitors Center.


Brad Bond and Andrea Dwyer with the Alexandria Lakes Area Chamber of Commerce stand with ribbon cutting scissors in front of the new Visitors Center at the Ohman Farm, in Kensington, Minnesota. 

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Proof Positive the Kensington Rune Stone is Medieval

While researching deeper into the Ritual Code within the Kensington Rune Stone inscription I discovered in early 2016, it led to another incredible discovery that by itself proves the medieval origin of the artifact.  Briefly, I discovered the first four symbolic numbers of 8, 22, 2 and 1, as they occur in sequence add up to 32, then 33, which equals the system of degrees within Scottish Rite Freemasonry.  These numbers are directly related to the Hebrew mysticism of the Kabbalah that traces the same numbering system to the number of bones and nerves in the spinal cord (32) with the skull, and brain within it, totaling 33.

The remaining numbers of 1, 10, 10, 14, relate to the Ten Commandments, the Enochian Legends, and the Isis/Osiris mysteries and the allegorical stories of the annual cycle of life on earth that every culture on the planet experiences.  In short, the Kensington inscription is largely allegorical with certain factual information peppered in for the initiated few to decipher.  The inscription was carved by a deeply initiated medieval monk who understood these alchemical teachings creating a brilliant message that included codes (Dating and Grail Codes) and important symbolism I have already published in my books.

What the initiated Cistercian monk also understood was the ancient and very sacred measuring system used by cultures dating back over 10,000 years that was calculated using the planet Venus: the Megalithic Yard.  British researcher, Alan Butler, wrote about his rediscovery of the megalithic yard in his groundbreaking book, City of the Goddess: Washington D.C.  Alan discovered that not only did ancient cultures build the world famous megalithic structures like Stonehenge in England, Newgrange in Ireland, the Great Pyramids at Giza in Egypt and other sites around the world, but the Founding Fathers of the United States built our capitol city in Washington D.C. using the same megalithic system.  

I have argued for nearly two decades that Freemasonry evolved from the medieval Knights Templar and most people know many of our Founding Fathers were Freemasons.  I maintain knowledge of the megalithic yard system of measurement was passed on to people like Thomas Jefferson, through Freemasonry, along with many other secrets directly from the Templars.  From there I used logic to try and determine if there was any other evidence on the Kensington Stone that might shed new light on who created it.  Sure enough, yet another connection to the Templars, and the initiated Cistercian monks who traveled with them, was there.

The megalithic yard is 2.72 feet in length.  If we multiple that length by 12 inches we get a total of 32.64 inches.  I asked Janet to take a length of string she had cut to that length and measure the length of the cast we own of the Kensington Stone, and it was about an inch short.  However, when she measured it diagonally across the face of the stone it was exactly one megalithic yard in length.  Keep in mind the carver was working with an irregular shaped slab of a glacial erratic, yet was still able to skillfully split the slab down to nearly the exact sacred dimensions he wanted.  As I have argued before, the primary purpose of the Kensington Rune Stone was to be a Templar land claim to establish a sanctuary where they could practice freedom of religion and freedom from the tyranny and oppression of the monarchs of Europe.  The Rune Stone was beginning of the founding of the United States and to ensure its protection the carver appears to have acknowledged Deity by using the sacred measuring system derived from the planet Venus; who to him and his Cistercian/Templar brethren was the physical manifestation of the Goddess in the heavens.  

   
Stonehenge in England is arguably the most famous megalithic structure in the world built using the megalithic yard over 5,000 years ago.


Newgrange in Ireland also dates back over 5,000 years and incorporates the megalithic measuring system.



The Great Pyramids of Egypt are believed to date back over 10,000 years and incorporate the megalithic yard.

The temple pyramid at Chichen Itza in Mexico had the megalithic yard used in its construction over 1,000 years ago.



When measured down the split side of the Kensington Rune Stone it measures just over an inch longer than a megalithic yard of 2.72 feet.



However, when measured diagonally across the face of the artifact that distance is exactly one megalithic yard, or 32.64 inches in length.  


The Thomson Formation of metagraywacke weathers into flat tabular slabs as can be seen along the banks of the St. Louis River, in Jay Cook State Park, a few miles south of Duluth, Minnesota.  The Kensington Rune Stone was carved into a large tabular slab of metagrawacke plucked by continental ice and carried to somewhere near the Ohman Farm roughly 10,000 years ago.


This diagram shows the Newport Tower conforms to the Megalithic Yard measuring system in its construction.  Since the Tower and the Kensington Rune Stone are connected through long-range alignments of the egg and notched keystones, it should be no surprise both artifacts were constructed by the medieval Cistercians and Knights Templar using the same ancient, and sacred, measuring system.  



This measuring stick with runic carvings was found in Norway and has a curious mixture of runic symbols including a reasonably close rendition of the Hooked X (Top left in upper photo).  The stick, and presumably the runic carvings, are believed to date to 1888 or before. 



On the back side of the stick is the runic alphabet that fairly closely matches the KRS alphabet.  Below is a Masonic box code that matches the runes and letters above. 

Sunday, October 29, 2017

Did Juan Ponce de Leon Carve the Overton Stone?

While researching early explorers to North America I stumbled upon something that jogged my memory.  On a trip to Nova Scotia this past August, Janet and I examined an amazing carving on the extreme western coastline called the Overton Stone (See blog post dated September 3, 2017).  The primary carvings are of a Christian style cross within a circle together with what appears to be a feather with two crossed leaves of tobacco and a crescent moon or the crescent of the planet Venus when viewed from earth.  But that is not the full extent of the carvings on the bedrock outcropping.  Just above ground level, roughly four feet to the lower right of the main group of carvings, is another interesting cluster of carvings.


A second cluster of carvings is found roughly four feet to the lower right of the main group (red boxed area) of carvings Janet Wolter is pointing to.


The second cluster includes two carvings with loops and curved lines at the top and the apparent numbers '06' and '07' below. 


A closer view of the carvings on top show what appears to be an "S" lying sideways to the right and a pair of "fish" symbols carved as a single continuous line on the left.

The second cluster of carvings includes two symbols with curved lines above what appears to be the numbers '06' and '07' close to the ground.  What caught my attention was the strange symbol with twin loops carved with a single continuous line.  While surfing the web looking for Hooked X symbols in the signatures of famous explorers, one in particular jumped out.  Juan Ponce de Leon (1474-1521) was a Spanish explorer known to have visited the shores of what is now known as Florida while searching for the "Fountain of Youth."   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Ponce_de_Leon 

While there is no known record of the famous explorer ever sailing as far north as Nova Scotia, but that doesn't mean he could not have.  The symbol circled in the image of Juan Ponce de Leon's signature below is the reason I bring up the possibility.  The "de" in de Leon's signature is strikingly familiar to the double looped carving on the Overton Stone.  The only meaningful difference between the two symbols is the bottom end of the carved line on the far right bends to the left instead of the right.     


The "de" in the signature of Juan Ponce de Leon (circled in red) looks strikingly similar to the double looped carving on the Overton Stone.

The most likely timeline for what could have been a secret voyage to Nova Scotia are between 1493, when he traveled to the Caribbean as a crew member on Columbus' second voyage, and 1503.  The second would have been sometime after 1513.  While many of his expeditions are well documented with no mention of his traveling as far north as Nova Scotia, there are significant gaps in the records that could have made such a trip possible.  The other problem with Juan Ponce de Leon, who was known to have been very violent to the natives in the Caribbean, and the Overton Stone, is the carvings suggest some kind of agreement or strategic alliance with the local indigenous people.  This would be at odds with his known behavior.  However, if he had been in Nova Scotia with a small contingent so far from home, his attitude toward the natives may have been different.  

Regardless, the striking similarity of the two symbols and a possible connection to the famous Spanish explorer begs the question to be asked.  What do you think?       


The Spanish Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon is credited with the discovery of what is now known as Florida during his search for the "Fountain of Youth."




Sunday, September 3, 2017

A Preliminary Investigation into the Geology of the Overton Stone

On a perfect sunny day on August 31, 2017, my wife and I along with three friends hiked along the rocky shoreline of extreme southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada, to see, potentially, one of the most exciting petroglyphs in North America.  As we approached the two, car-sized boulders sitting on a slight rise roughly three-hundred feet from the ocean at low tide, the carvings quickly came into view. 

The carvings are on the south-facing surface of the larger boulder roughly four feet off the ground.  What stood out most prominently was the approximately six-inch tall Templar style cross encircled with an egg-shaped line that had four dots at the cardinal points at the flared ends of the cross.  The lower arm of the cross is longer than the other three resembling a Christian style cross some have interpreted to be connected to the Portuguese Templars.   Immediately left of the cross is what some say is a leaf, but to me it looks like a feather carved in detail.  Underneath the feather are what appears to be crossed tobacco leaves in the form of an “X.”  Immediately to the right of these is a carving of a crescent moon or possibly Venus.


Janet Wolter points the Overton Stone carvings of a Templar Cross, crossed tobacco leaves, a large feather and a crescent moon. (Courtesy of Patrick Shekleton)

My goals for the investigation were to document the rock type which is a strongly foliated mica schist, obtain a rock sample from the back side of the boulder for laboratory analysis of the mineralogy to try and understand aspects of the weathering, examine the depths and weathering aspects of the carvings, and to assess the site for possible archaeological assessment and possible dating of the carvings.  Fortunately, I was successful in all getting everything I hoped to accomplish on this trip done.  I’ll provide additional comments about the laboratory analysis of the rock and the archaeological work as results become available.

Of course, the significance of these carvings to my own and others’ research is huge.  If several centuries old they represent what was likely the consummation of a strategic alliance between a group of Knights Templar from Europe and the local indigenous people; the Mi’kmaq.  It would provide powerful new evidence that not only that pre-Columbian Templars visited these shores, but they had positive relations with Native Americas.  I have argued for years this allegiance was due in large part to their shared ideological views that included above all else a deep reverence of the Goddess they also called the, “Holy Mother.”  These carvings go a long way to proving this thesis was indeed true.  Stay tuned as we learn about these amazing carvings. 

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Richard Nielsen's Grail Code is Alive and Well

A quiet Sunday morning in July was interrupted by an email inquiry from a friend who asked me about an article written by my co-author of "The Kensington Rune Stone: Compelling New Evidence", Richard Nielsen.  This article entitled, "There is No Grail Code on the Kensington Rune Stone", appeared in the Epigraphic Society of Occasional Papers, Volume 27 (2009).  Pat asked me, "Why did Nielsen change his opinion about a discovery that he actually made?"  Pat continued, "After reading the ESOP article is looked like he (Nielsen) was more interested in trying to discredit you than prove anything about a Grail Code."

It has been over a year now since Dick passed away and Pat's questions prompted me to recall my days working with Nielsen and our joint discovery of what Dick and I decided to call, "The Grail Code."  Followers of our work might recall in 2002 I generated a microscopic photo-library of the entire inscription of the Kensington Stone that led to my documenting numerous previously unnoticed punch marks and short strokes made by the carver after the inscription was carved.  Dick and my analysis of these anomalies led to several discoveries including the so-called "Grail Code" first noticed by Nielsen who mentioned it to me.

Dick was quite proud of this discovery and made sure we included it in the introduction of our 2006 book.  You can imagine my surprise when his 2009 paper was published where he unconvincingly tried to make the Grail Code marks disappear using a low resolution 3D images generated during a study performed on the KRS in 2008.  Dick had grown impatient with me for reasons I still do not understand and appeared driven to undermine everything he and I had discovered together.  Regardless, this article, and others he wrote based on this 3D study, did nothing to undermine anything but his own credibility and positive legacy of the good work he did during his over 30 years researching the artifact.  

Nielsen asserts in the article that there was "staining" caused by a silicon rubber material used during the making of four casts of the artifact.  These claims are false and have nothing to do with the physical modifications made by the carver.  Nielsen claims there are man made dots present where there are none while at the same time claiming man made dots do not exist when clearly they do.  The evidence he put forth was in the form of photographs of such low resolution it was beneath him to have offered them.  Let's start with the first letter in the Grail Code.


This extremely low resolution image was offered as evidence that no single dot exists in the upper left arm of the ''g" rune on line one of the KRS inscription.  I don't believe Nielsen really thought an image of this poor quality would pass as legitimate evidence.


Here again Nielsen offers a very low resolution image trying to argue away a clear and distinct punch mark on the end of the lower right leg of the "r" rune.


Not only are the man made punch marks clear and obvious within the yellow circles in the images I generated in 2002, but the high resolution 3D microscopic images of the punch marks I took in 2011 clearly show their existence.


Nielsen then offers over century-old photographs known to have been retouched as evidence to try and prove no man made marks exist when they obviously do.



Here again, microscopic photographs taken in 2002, and high resolution 3D microscopic images taken in 2011, clearly show the existence of man made marks added to the character by the medieval carver.

The question is no longer if these modifications to the runes exist, the question now is did the carver intentionally try to encode the word "GRAL/Grail" within the inscription.  We cannot know with any certainty, but based on the related evidence I have presented in my three books that is consistent with the Kensington inscription having been carved by a Cistercian monk in the 14th Century it's very likely he did.  One thing I can assure the readers of this blog, in 2004 Richard Nielsen believed this to be true because he was the one who first offered the idea to me and insisted it be included in our 2006 book.  I want to be sure Dick gets credit for this discovery even though he tried unsuccessfully to back-peddle on it.

Jerry Lutgen generated this image of the Narragansett Rune Stone inscription using Reflective Transformation Imaging (RTI).  The 2-3/8” tall by 2” wide area to the left of the “s” rune on line one appears to have been hammered on or chipped out indiscriminately. (Photograph courtesy of the Jerry Lutgen, 2014)   



Saturday, July 1, 2017

New Kensington Rune Stone Visitor Center Construction Progressing Nicely


Recently I received an email update from Brad Bonk at Douglas County about the progress of construction of the new Kensington Rune Stone Visitors Center at the Ohman Farm in Kensington, Minnesota.  The Ohman Family has long hoped a visitor's center would be constructed at the farm to tell the story about their ancestors who first physically homesteaded the property in 1890.  The center will also present educational information about the important historical artifact Olof Ohman and his two sons, Olof Jr. and Edward, discovered while clearing trees on the property in preparation for farming in the fall of 1898.  While the history of the century-plus long controversy of the authenticity of the artifact will be a part of the information presented, the weight of evidence supporting authenticity, together with the lack of evidence supporting the "belief" by many it was a modern hoax, have appropriately put the emphasis on celebrating the important historical artifact that it is.

Because both Darwin Ohman and I provided technical and historical input into the design of the displays and interpretive information to be presented, we can tell you it is going to be an excellent educational tool.  I know the public will be impressed and very proud of this state-of-the-art facility that will tell the story about this incredible historical artifact and the Ohman Family who first brought it to the attention of the world, especially for young people and children.  It's long overdue that the artifact and the family are finally getting the proper respect and recognition they so richly deserve.  I look forward to the grand opening scheduled for the fall of 2017.

You can read about the progress at the park at the following link:    

https://linkprotect.cudasvc.com/url?a=http://www.echopress.com/news/4284241-kensington-rune-stone-visitor-center-progress-schedule&c=E,1,dMrNg2PBRQwmr8wLft2t2u8LT9bvkkQA_HzLmOyN9SF5bKaGrLvc1R4IBil6K4mX4ljt88BmLX0DjhJr-7Ag9phpp2HBlusLMvMyYQCtFltIqVD36pX3k-mm&typo=1


The concrete cast-in-place footings and walls were recently placed for the new Kensington Rune Stone Visitor Center currently under construction at the Ohman Farm in Kensington, Minnesota, which is now a Douglas County Park. 



Arial view of the Ohman Farm.  The new visitor's center is located in the open area between the road and the trees in the upper middle area not far from the original Ohman home.


This photo was taken by the Ohman Family in the late 1950's.  The original house on the left and barn on the right have been preserved and still stand.  The original wind vane erected to pump water from the well was taken down decades ago.  However, it was recently relocated and re-erected after being purchased and returned to the farm.