Sunday, December 9, 2018

A Qualified Geologist’s Peer Review of Scott Wolter’s Geological Investigation into the Kensington Rune Stone.

Yesterday, I received an email from my recently retired acquaintance, John Parks, who lives in Texas and spends the summers with his wife and family in Wisconsin.  After reading his email I called, and we visited for a good while.  He relayed how he had read, yet again, in my most recent blog post a common theme of critics falsely claiming my geological investigation into the Kensington Rune Stone had not been academically peer reviewed.  John said he would be happy to be a guest blogger to address his own peer review of my work performed roughly a year ago.  John had long ago established himself as a more than competent geologist who would be fair, thorough, and impartial in his review.  I’ll let John talk about the peer review in his own words and I’m sure he’ll be happy to answer any reasonable and thoughtful questions:

First, let me introduce myself, my name is John Parks. Back at the end of January, 2016 I was reading through one of Scott’s blogs when the subject of his work not coming under the peer review process was the subject of much discussion and some criticism. At that point I volunteered my services to Scott to be part of the independent peer review process for his work. At least as part of the work that involved geology was concerned.

 After exchanging several emails and phone conversations we concluded that I might be of some assistance to the vetting process. Several months passed, but eventually, I had the opportunity to travel to Minneapolis and meet Scott and his wife Janet. We discussed several subjects of mutual interest including the possibility of me reviewing some of his research. At that time, I inquired if it could be possible to obtain the peer edited copies of the papers/research documents that were reviewed. Scott agreed, but indicated that the documents were in storage and could not retrieve them at that time. He said when he had the chance to pull them from storage, he would email them to me.

 Scott did just as he had indicated and sent me copies of his original research papers as well as copies of the peer reviewed copies with the comments by the various reviewers on them. There was a total of nine peer reviews that Scott sent. Prior to reviewing the comments by the reviewers, I read and reviewed the two papers that Scott asked me to evaluate. It was only after I had completed my review of the papers that I then read the other reviewers’ comments. 

The five paragraphs in quotes were included in the summary of the review that I sent to Scott. It is not the detailed review that I did. That was sent as a separate attachment to Scott.

 1. “Generally, the description of your analysis of the KRS covered the major points that needed to be addressed as to the physical characteristics of the KRS. Very good review. Your methodology of beginning with a macro description of the KRS and progressing through medium-scale elements of the stone, finally ending with finer-scale details at the mineral- and elemental-levels gives the reader a through summary of the details of the KRS and how you came to your conclusions.   

 2. “I thought that the analysis of the diagenesis of the minerology (micas) in the KRS was the strongest portion of your analysis of the KRS. It was based on well-documented, technical support, such as the numerous SEM photomicrographs that were utilized. The comparison of the weathering characteristics of the KRS and the tombstones added support to your hypothesis that the KRS carving was likely not a modern (1898) hoax.  

 3. “The figures in the copy of the report that I received were sometimes fuzzy and difficult to view the items being discussed in the captions. This may have been a poor copy of the original, not sure. As noted in my review of the paper, if you add more arrows (larger and/or more obvious) pointing to the objects being discussed in the text or captions, it would add to the reader's understanding what the text is describing.

 4. “In the text, on a couple of points relating to the runes themselves, you mention the possible intent of the KRS carver. While the statements may, in fact, describe the intent of the carver, they are conjecture and there does not appear to be enough physical evidence to support the interpretation (e.g. p4, point 5 – the tapering of the KRS for that end to be put into the ground and p28 referring to the same idea).    

5. “This is a good paper and gives the reader a balanced view of the physical description of the KRS. As well as support for the conclusions concerning the age of the carving of the runes.”


 I hope that this addition of at least one reviewer’s general evaluation of Scott’s analysis of the geologic aspects of the KRS to the exchange of views contained within this blog might lead to some possible clarification of the peer review process that has been carried out on Scott’s analysis of the geology of the KRS.

 For those that are not aware of my academic and professional background I include below. This is an update to a portion of a reply on this blog from January 2016.

I shall begin with a little background about myself which would be in order, then, as well as at this time. I, like Scott, am a geologist and scientist. I received a MS Degree in Geology from the University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill, where I worked at the McCarthy Seismology Lab as a Research Assistant. Additionally, much of my graduate work was also spent in structural geology and igneous & metamorphic petrography. I studied at the Duke University Marine Geophysical Lab where I did my research for my MS thesis. Additionally, I taught for 3 years at Austin Peay State University as an Instructor of Geology. I did field research on aspects of geomorphology (co-authored several publications). My undergraduate degree was in Art with majors in Art History & Painting. I have retired after spending over 35 years at ExxonMobil in exploration and production geology and geophysics. While at ExxonMobil, in addition to my duties as Technical Team Lead and Supervisor, I taught classes in advanced stratigraphic concepts, as well as regional and field development geology.

While this is not a double-blind review (meaning that both the reviewer and the author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa throughout the review process), as some readers had mentioned should have occurred, my analysis of the papers were still an unbiased review. Both positive and negative comments were given. I did not agree with all that Scott indicated in the papers, but the science behind the geology, especially the analysis of the diagenesis of the minerology (micas) in the KRS, I considered to be the strongest portion of his analysis of the KRS (from a geology standpoint). I made no evaluations on the runes themselves from a linguistic standpoint (of which I am not qualified to comment on, other than in regard to weathering processes).

The documents that Scott sent me to review were not the chapter on the geology (Chapter 2) of the KRS in KRS – Compelling New Evidence (KRS-CNE) specifically, but two separate evaluations that together did form the core of the geologic analysis of the KRS that did make up the chapter. As mentioned above, these documents were previously reviewed by nine other individuals. These individuals were familiar with the level and background of Scott’s investigative analysis on other geologic subjects.
As far as my review of these documents, I was concerned with
  1. The process of data collection - how the data was collected and under what conditions.
  2. Were there data collected that would indicate or preclude that the KRS inscriptions were carved in the late 19th century.
  3. The collection of base-line data for comparative analysis dealing with the weathering processes and characteristics of known-age samples. And do the base-line samples have a bearing on the age of the inscription?
  4. The characteristics and morphology of the KRS in both the non-carved surfaces, in comparison to the carved runes, and the evaluation of the similarities and differences.
  5. The geologic provenance of the KRS (essentially meaning where did the rock originate).
  6. What were the conclusions derived from the data collection and analysis consistent?

The petrographic report (Pet Report SW 101203) began with a short summary of the unearthing of the KRS as reported by Olof Ohman. There was also a brief review of the initial analysis of the stone that occurred in the late 19thand early 20th century, as well as the conclusions of those investigators. This background information was later greatly expanded and added to in considerable detail in KRS-CNE. In my review I noted to Scott that at least three references should have been cited in this section, but were not. However, that oversight was remedied in the KRS-CNE when it was published three years later in 2006. These reference omissions related to work by Hjalmar R. Holand and George O. Curme.
The next section involved a general description of the KRS and its physical features. The six sides of the KRS were defined with accompanying photographs, such as the ‘Glacial Face Side’ with the first nine lines of the inscriptions. These were straightforward for the most part. However, on Side 5, named the ‘Glacial Bottom End’ Scott describes that side as “this end tapers sharply with a beveled edge that appears to have been intended to be put in the ground”. This point was outside the bounds of a description of the physical characteristics and crossing into the area of interpretation and speculation as to the intent of the carver. As mentioned in the summary at the beginning of this blog (see above point 4), while the statement may, in fact, describe the intent of the carver, the interpretation is conjecture and there does not appear to be enough physical evidence to support the interpretation. [see p. 16, KRS-CNE].
Throughout the Pet Report SW 101203, as well as the other report I reviewed (KRS 3D Report 2-20-11), I noted numerous places in which Scott was describing various physical characteristics of the KRS. Both at the macroscopic, as well as at the microscopic level utilizing photographs. In some of the cases the feature being described would be clearly identified and labeled in the photograph. An example of this helpful process of assisting the reader in understanding what is being describer can be seen as the arrows on the photograph pointing to the six indentations along the edge of the ‘Glacial Side’.  [see p. 21, fig. 16, KRS-CNE].

However, this was not done in all photographs. Two examples where this non-labeling process occurred can also be seen in the KRS-CNE. The first is the figure description at the macroscopic level of “three dark gray vertical lines on the side are weathered joint fractures.” [see p. 15, fig. 2, KRS-CNE].

The other is at the microscopic level of an SEM image showing “numerous bladed-shaped biotite and muscovite mica minerals”. [see p. 37, fig.36, KRS-CNE].

Labeling of the mica minerals on this figure, as in other unlabeled items being discussed in other portions of the papers, would have helped the reader avoid any misunderstanding of what was being described. To a geologist, a mica mineral surface is obvious. To a non-geologist it may not be so apparent.
I should mention at this point that references to pages or figures in the KRS-CNE are included here as examples. The images shown here, or referenced, were also contained in the reports that were reviewed. For those that have copies of the KRS-CNE, it should assist the present readers in following along with this recap of some of the features of the reviews I undertook without the readers having the reports themselves (Pet Report SW 101203 and KRS 3D Report 2-20-11.
The physical characteristics of the varying sides of the KRS were discussed. Variations in the appearance of the surfaces were dealt with, as well as potential source processes for the origins of those features. An example of this included a discussion of the thin (1-2 mm thick), tan-to-white triangular-shaped area in the lower left portion of the ‘Glacial Face Side’. [see p. 17, fig. 7, KRS-CNE].

This is the surface where the majority of runes are located. Scott mentions that is surface is composed of a course-grained crystalline calcite (CaCO3) and that the most likely source for the origin of this deposit is that calcite, in solution, traveled along fractures (joint system), which was parallel to the ‘Glacial Face Side’ of the KRS and deposited in the joint space. Essentially, this is hydrothermal calcite. Possibly in placed during the low-grade metamorphism that the KRS parent rock experienced. Also identified were elongate chlorite [(Mg, Fe, Al)6 (Al, Si)4 O10 (OH)8] crystals contained within the layer of calcite which exhibit, parallel to the long axis of the KRS, a preferred orientation.
The recognition of the characteristics of this hydrothermal calcite is significant because several of the runes are carved in the material. Scott described the calcite layer in regards to its relative hardness (Mohs hardness scale), of which it is much softer than the host meta-graywacke rock. It was noted in a microscopic examination utilizing reflected light exposed little difference the textural characteristics and the apparent weathering within the runes and the region adjacent to the carving. At the end of the evaluation it was noted that “Further study of the weathering of the characters within the calcite area might yield additional information about the relative age of the inscription. We have not pursued further analysis at this time sue to the reluctance of the current need for invasive test sampling within this area.”
Two points to make concerning the Scott’s comments are in order. First, a reevaluation of the calcite deposit brought an observation to light that was not initially evident, in that no apparent weathering boundary or ground line was able to be identified. This observation may bring into question whether the KRS was upright for any amount of time. This last statement was included in the KRS-CNE p. 17. It does indicate that Scott continued his evaluation of the KRS during the three years from the initial investigations to the publishing of the KRS-CNE. Second, is his statement for the resistance for “invasive test sampling”. This indicates the hesitancy to run destructive tests that would compromise the integrity of the artifact.

The geologic provenance of the KRS (where and under what conditions the stone originated) was a first order question that was addressed in the papers. Scott observed striations (scratches or gouges) that occurred only on the ‘Glacial Back Side’ surface. The circle in the middle-upper portion of the image is the core hole. [see KRS-CNE p. 19, fig 10].

These striations ran roughly parallel to the long axis of the KRS. He interpreted that the KRS was part of the bedrock with the ‘Glacial Back Side’ being the top of the bedrock surface. The remaining sides of the KRS remained in situ as part of the bedrock. He reasoned that these striations developed as the glacier moved across the bedrock digging into the underlying bedrock. Subsequent to the striations being formed at the base of the glacier, the KRS became dislodged and was plucked from the bedrock and became incorporated in the advancing ice. The KRS was then carried away from the parent rock to be eventually deposited as the glacier melted approximately 12,000 ybp (years before present). The lack of striations on the other surfaces for the KRS was reasoned to be due the nearly abrasion-free transport mechanism of being imbedding within the ice. The interpretation of the morphology of the surfaces is consistent with the known processes of glacial erosion and transport.
As part of the analysis of the KRS a single core sample was taken from the ‘Glacial Back Side’. The core measured 33 mm (1 ¼”) diameter by 50 mm (2”) long. The core site was selected to
     1. Avoid damaging the runes,
     2. Obtain a sample of the stone to determine the mineral composition of the stone and,
     3. Provide rock for thin-section analysis and additional studies of the weathered surface.
The area cored included a branching portion of one of a pair of white lineations and a likely joint fracture. [see Pet Report SW 101203, p. 30, fig. 35].

The top 13 mm (1/2”) was cut off of the core. This newly cut portion was then cut perpendicular to the top surface and perpendicular to the white lineation. Cutting of the core this way created a cross-sectional view of the white lineation which allowed the physical characteristics of the lineation to be observed. [see KRS-CNE p. 30, fig. 27].

The analysis of the whitened color was interpreted to be the result of chemical leaching of the magnesium and iron elements from the biotite minerals that are present in the stone. This analysis supports the interpretation that the two white lineations were produced from contact with a root system. Additionally, the interpretation that the organic-based origin of the lineations suggesting “prolonged contact in the ground with tree roots” [Pet Report SW 101203, p. 33] is consistent with the data. However, the term “prolonged” is not defined.

The differences between the descriptions of several witnesses of the size of the tree roots that were attached to the ‘Glacial Back Side’, approximately 76 mm (3”) and the width of the white lineations measured in this study, 13 mm (1/2”) were addressed. The interpretation for the inconsistency of the two widths relates to the active ends of the immature roots trying to acquire nutrients during an early age in the root and the later stage when bark grows around the root, increasing in width with time. Based on published research [KRS-CNE p. 33], this interpretation seems justifiable. 

Thin sections were cut from the core sample. By examining the thin sections, the KRS’s component lithic and mineralogy could be determined. The thin sections were examined under plane-polarized transmitted light using a polarized light microscope. This process is called optical mineralogy. A portion of the core was cut off and secured to a glass plate with epoxy. The small rock sample was then ground to a thickness of 0.03 mm. At this thickness, light can pass through the rock. [see KRS-CNE p. 34, fig. 31]

The thin sections were examined to determine the minerology of the KRS, which is classified as a metagraywacke. A greywacke is a type of sandstone generally characterized by poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments (small rock fragments) usually set in a clay-sized matrix. It is normally a texturally immature sedimentary rock. The KRS was described as being “comprised dominantly of mostly angular, fine-grained quartz, orthoclase feldspar, and rock fragments.” [see KRS-CNE p.34]
Multiple point counts were preformed to determine the mineral composition of the KRS. The results were cross-plotted on triangular diagram with percentages of quartz, feldspar and rock fragments at the apex, against other types of greywackes. [see KRS-CNE p.35, fig. 33].

The analysis was performed by Dr. Richard Ojakangas, Professor Emeritus of Geology from the University of Minnesota – Duluth. Dr. Ojakangas’ conclusion was that the mother-rock for the KRS probably originated in the Paleoproterozoic  Amimikie Basin in east-central Minnesota, with an age of about 2 billion years. [see KRS-CNE p.35] [see KRS-CNE p.C10, plate 18].

The analysis also indicated that “elongate detrital grains exhibited a preferred orientation that [was] sub-parallel with the foliation.” [see KRS-CNE p.34]. Foliation refers to repetitive layering within the rock. The foliation consisted of muscovite, chlorite and biotite (all are sheet-like mica minerals) that makeup the matrix. Scott indicated that the “presence of cleavage, a mild foliation and the [presence of the] mineral chlorite” was indicative of low-grade metamorphism. [see KRS-CNE p.34]. An additional, secondary orientation of the micas, approximately 90 degrees to the major orientation was interpreted to represent a second metamorphic event.  This mineral analysis of the KRS is consistent with classifying the KRS as a greywacke that has undergone multiple low-grade metamorphism. [see KRS-CNE p.C9, plate 16].

After completing analysis on the macroscopic level and at the microscopic level utilizing thin-section optical polarized light microscopic examination, Scott began a study to determine additional weathering characteristics of the KRS. A chip sample measuring 13 mm (1/2”) X 6.5 mm (1/4”) X 3.25 mm (1/8”) was obtained from the ‘Split Side’ of the KRS. [see KRS-CNE p. 37, fig. 35].

This is the face with the last three lines of runes. Some of the runes can be seen on figure 35 at the top of the photograph, as well as the ‘H’ carved by Hjalmar Holand in 1907 toward the bottom of the figure. Taking a sample of the stone that has similar appearance and physical characteristics as the carvings of the runes, it is logical for additional analysis to be performed on this surface. The sample was examined utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental mapping and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The facilities at the Materials Laboratory at Iowa State University were used to test the core sample and the stone chip.
The top (or originally exposed glacially eroded and weathered surface) of the core was examined utilizing a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM showed fine-grained pitting that was uneven with exposed angular minerals of quartz and feldspar present. However, the softer bladed mica grains, which make up a significant portion of the rock were essentially not present. [see KRS-CNE p. 38, fig. 37].

As noted by Scott, this surface represents the glacially weathered portion of the KRS. The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, is also termed the Wisconsinan glaciation, and was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This most recent glacial advance reached its maximum extent around 18,000 ybp, then started retreating, but a final glacial advance occurred about 12,000 ybp.  It may have been during this last advance that the KRS was deposited as a small glacial erratic (stones picked up by the glacier and deposited away from its point of origin. Some erratics are small like the KRS and small are as large as houses. It is logical that the weathering on this side of the KRS does reflect, at a minimum, 12,000 years of weathering.
The base of the core and the part of the chip that had been attached to the KRS were examined. These two samples represent freshly fractured surfaces and exhibit mineral faces that have not been subjected the weathering. These surfaces would be representative of surfaces from the time of the original carvings. [see KRS-CNE p. 38, fig. 36].

The SEM photograph above was taken of the freshly broken part of the chip sample. Many mica and biotite mineral blades (sheets) were identified by EDX process. No weathering is present on this fresh surface. Compare this image of the fresh surface with its many sharp mineral grains with the previous figure that shows rounded mineral grains that are indicative of prolonged exposure to the effects of weathering. 

A major portion of the paper was involved in describing the weathering characteristics of the KRS. This analysis of the different sides of the KRS was discussed and was part of the supportive evidence into the evolution of the morphology of the KRS. One question that Scott addressed and attempted to obtain, at least a qualitative answer for, had to do with the actual age of the rune carvings. There are two dates that are of major importance. The first is the date of assumed discovery of the KRS by Olof Ohman - 1898. The second, is the date inscribed on the KRS itself - 1362. 

The authenticity of the discovery will not be addressed here. However, the technique to address the comparative age of the inscription will be reviewed. The approach that was taken was to compare samples taken from tombstones found in Hallowell, Maine. In the paper reviewed there was no discussion as to why this particular cemetery was chosen over other cemeteries. It would have been appropriate for Scott to have included the reasons in his paper. That said, the paper reviewed did go into an assessment of the criteria that would be needed to do a comparative study of the weathering characteristics of the mica minerals in the KRS and weathered mica minerals from tombstones of known ages.

The weather conditions should be similar between central Minnesota and the region where the tombstone samples would be collected. The ages of the tombstones would need to cover the years in question, from 1898 to 1362. This, in North America, was, of course, not possible. At least as far as the earlier date is concerned.

The size of the mica mineral grains of the tombstones should be similar. This is important to the fact that, assuming similar conditions exist, the smaller the mineral grain (smaller surface area), the faster the weathering will progress and alter the micas.

Obtaining samples above the ground level and below the ground level would be important data points with which to compare with the KSR since it has been suggested that the KRS was “apparently shaped or ‘dressed’ prior to the carving of the inscription”. (Pet Report SW 101203, p. 33). Unfortunately, only samples above the ground were collected due to the ground being frozen at the time the samples were taken. 23 samples were obtained for the comparative mineral study. Only 3 of these samples were deemed acceptable in terms of mica grain size. Three samples are a very small data set to compare weathering characteristics to the KRS. It is recommended that additional samples be collected to be statically significant.

It should be noted that there are numerous monuments and markers throughout Europe that cover the dates that are of interest. These could be potential candidates to be utilized if an expanded comparative age-dating study were ever undertaken. It would add additional data and put more constraints on the interpretation if a search were carried out to determine if other studies in Europe have been published utilizing the SEM to evaluate mica weathering characteristics. But, in this study, the older European carvings were not considered.

Below are SEM images of the KRS (on the left) and the Abner Lowell tombstone (dated 1815) (on the right). [see KRS-CNE, p. 40, fig. 39]. As can be seen, the size of the bladed mica grains are generally similar in size and texture with sharp edges exhibited on both rock chips.

The weathered surfaces of the three rock chips from the tombstones exhibited features of decomposition of mica. These features included: sheets of biotite expanding and separating; individual edges of minerals became rounded and frayed; pitting; exfoliation of individual biotite sheets; and the development of lichen on the surface of the tombstones that accelerates dissolution of the biotite grains.

The results of the tombstone study resulted in an interpretation by Scott. That the relative age of the KRS carvings was now possible. His view was that the relative age of the KRS inscription was older than the inscriptions on the tombstones in Hallowell, Maine examined (approximately 200 years old). Therefore, the “biotite mica that was exposed at the time of the original inscription on the KRS took longer than about 200 years to completely weather away”.

His interpretation is entirely consistent, given the data that were obtained from the KRS and the tombstones.

In summary, I find the techniques in data collection, data analysis and comparative evaluation that were used in the 2003 study to be internally consistent with the interpretation that whoever carved the KRS did so certainty not in 1898, and likely earlier than the age of the tombstones studied (1805-1815).  


  1. Sounds Good To Me.I Believe Scott Wolters Geology Work 100%

    1. Hi Wayne,

      While I certainly appreciate your belief in my work, it's nice to know there is also voluminous hard scientific facts to support the faith in geology you've have. More good stuff coming.

    2. Scott thank you for sharing your research have watched you for years it is a blessing to have ppl who share history based on facts as a native American at heart and in my soul im so sick many things but celebrating Columbus as a holiday sickens me yet ppl believe what we were taught by our governing body with no facts any info on true history facts readings/sites ect pls share i love history thanks again keep up the great work

    3. Steve,

      Columbus was a brutal, self-absorbed opportunist in my view. He was, and is still being used to perpetuate a false historical narrative to this day. Negative forces like the Smithsonian Institution, certain academic institutions, online hate bloggers, Wikipedia, and others continue to try and veil the masses into believing lies. They need to held accountable. The best way to do that is with facts and I will continue to do my part as best I can.

      Happy holidays.

    4. Mr. Wolters, It is so very obvious that you have a few very nasty detractors. One, who has the initials j.c., and, no, that doesn't stand for Jesus Christ, is particularly vituperative and just downright nasty. This man is very, very jealous of your popularity, and I daresay, your looks! In my view, all his rantings and ravings have made your views interesting and thoughtfilled. I love your show, and although I may not agree on a few things, you always make me think, and in some cases, research. Keep up the good work and don't let ol' cork in the butt rattle you. See ya on the tube!

    5. Unknown,

      I don't expect everyone to agree with me and if people have legitimate questions, I'm happy to address them. I have no time, or interest, in engaging haters or those who might be jealous. I'm a geologist, not a psychologist.

      It is my goal to, hopefully, prompt people to dig deeper and learn more. We live in such a superficial society when there is so much more. I'll keep doing my thing and not worry about those that are more interested in tearing others down. What a sad existence.

      Onward and upward; thanks for taking time to send your comments.

  2. Thanks for sharing and thanks to John Parks for taking the time to do a review.

    Been a few years since I posted, but always lurking.

    1. TD Bauer,

      Glad to see you back; chime in anytime.

    2. Anonymous,

      Your comments will not be posted unless you identify yourself. You know the rules; especially in this case.

    3. On a side note I must have given away 4-6 copies of your "The Hooked X" book that I would order through Amazon over the years. Went to buy another copy today and found Amazon doesn't have them in stock. They can still be ordered through secondary stores, which is good. I presume that book is out of print. Have to remember to hang onto the one I just ordered.

    4. TD Bauer,

      My book sold out at Amazon, but I know they reordered and are restocked. I would try again or you can get a signed copy off my website.

  3. How wonderful is that a geologist as highly qualified as John Parks was able to to do a peer review of your analysis of the Kensington runestone. Glad to hear that it turned out to be such a positive review. Congrats Scott!

  4. Scott, I'm glad you did this. Not surprised that Mr. Parks validated your excellent work. As you always say, the science doesn't lie!

    1. Dave,

      John's a smart guy and saw the same things Winchell and I did. Science doesn't lie; it just is.

  5. I enjoyed reading this. Karen CS Racine, WI

    1. Hi Karen,

      There is a lot more to come on John's review. Keep an eye on this blog post.

  6. Darwin Ohman here.
    I have been reading this post with a great deal of interest. I want to thank John for doing the professional review. I do understand it and Scott and I have talked about the physical features and how he documented it many times. Thanks again John, very interesting.

    Now to Scott.
    The results of this review of your methodology in examining the KRS is no surprise to me and is what I would have expected. I first met Scott in 2004 and I have had the honor to work with him on the KRS research and many other things that are related.

    As a non professional I am not able to critique his work as such but I can vouch for his honesty. He has been the KRS researcher who has been totally honest with me since day one. Unfortunately I am unable to say that about some of the main players from years past. Scott is now the leading KRS researcher by far and when he and Janet talk, I listen! Keep it up Scott, and have a great day everyone. I am!! Darwin

    1. Darwin,

      I know John has more to his commentary, but so far so good. We have had some very interesting experiences together over that 14 years and interacted with some different characters that's for sure. However, the one thing that has been a constant is we continue to push forward bringing forth new evidence in various disciplines that continue to be consistent with authenticity. Sooner or later the world of academia will be forced to come around accept the facts and the historical truth. I just hope we both live to see it.

  7. Scott as a brother Mason I wanted to ask how you deal with all the anti masonic retoric from the alt history crowd. I see and hear a lot of otherwise smart folks spewing vile lies about the fraternity and wondered what you thought about it .

    1. Bro Gunslinger416,

      When people say negative things about the Craft I take it as an awkward request for more information. If they really understood what we were about, provided they are reasonable people, they would see what a positive, supportive force we are for our members and society in general.

      People fear what they don't understand. That is why I believe we need to be more open about who we are. I strongly believe we need more Masons in the world; especially in politics today on both sides of the aisle. If so, you and I both know there would be a higher percentage of people making decisions in the interest of the greater good, than the personal good.

    2. Bro Scott
      You are a force for good. I could not agree with you more. I spent my life writing about the knowledge we spread and I hope more people learn from us. I am so glad you are out there for us.

    3. Brother Scott I knew there was a reason I liked you. You Sir are an intellectual of greatness. I look forward to more of your work .

    4. Bro Gunslinger416,

      Thank you, but all the brothers are doing good work. I get more credit than I deserve because more people know me. We all have to keep pushing the ball forward.

      In light...

  8. Scott excellent assessment. When can I expect you back on TV? I would love to see you lead a series about the knights templar etc. we need more shows like this, and less reality junk.

    1. Bryan,

      I am just now adding John's latest submission. He has taken a lot of time and effort to review my work and it is greatly appreciated. I welcome any and all serious questions and comments.

      As far as when you might see me on TV again? Maybe when the snow melts and the flowers begin to bloom... ;-)

  9. Scott,

    I wanted to try this out for myself but, I have not been able to come across the full alphabet used on the stone. I asked a while back. You said you knew the Alphabet used but, never provided a link.

    Here is what I was thinking.

    Atbash Cipher

    You already have the base key. 8 & 22

    Would be extremely interesting to see what words pop out.

    Have a Wonderful Winter Solstice,

    Anthony Warren

  10. Scott,

    Is it possible that some of the KRS creators/depositors/exploration team could have Teutonic Knights? I believe they had a robust navy at the time.



    1. Brooks,

      Absolutely some of the KRS party could have been Teutonic Knights. However, without a list of names it's impossible to know for sure. However, I suspect many were from the Baltic region and Scandinavian countries.

  11. As long as there are people like you digging up what REALLY happened in history, maybe someday we will be able to teach our children and many generations to come the REAL truth about our history. Thank you some much for opening my eyes (and many more) about how we were taught wrong in schools.
    Thanks again, Warren.

    1. Warren,

      Thank you, but from my perspective the battle is far from over. We need to keep the pressure on until not only are treasures like the Kensington Stone accepted, but the history behind them carefully researched, understood, accepted and celebrated.

  12. Today Sunday January 13th We went to the Minnesota History Theatre in Saint Paul to see the play “Runestone! The Rock Musical” It is still in the pre-production stage and it was just a raw performance with the actor reading their lines and no set. It looked like about 250 to 300 where in attendance.
    I had doubts it could be pulled off!! But, they did it!!! VERY VERY Entertaining! The play will probably be in full production within a year. Scott you will probably like the song “Templar Knights”

    1. Wayne,

      I know Mark Jensen who wrote the production he began several years ago. I've heard from a couple of friends who attended, including Darwin Ohman, who said the production was coming along very nicely. I remember attending a similar raw performance several years ago where we met the cast members had a Q & A session afterward. It was a fun evening and I'm sure yours was as well. Thanks for the update and yes, good to see the Templars being acknowledged since they were the ones who created the stone!

  13. You do realize that this is not going to satisfy the critics who are accustomed to a legitimate double-blind peer review process involving three or more readers, preferably with Ph.D.s after their names?

    The best way to silence the naysayers is to use this initial positive review as impetus for pursuing a formal review process, or at least a reasonable approximation of it given the time element involved.

    Let us hope that this is just the first step in what will be a significant voyage of scientific discovery and reaffirmation.

    Lycka till, vis man

    1. Bill,

      My professionally peer reviewed work has been out there for 18 years now and has stood up to scrutiny. It will stand up in a court of law and that's good enough for me. As I've said to the academic many times, have at it!

  14. Hello Scott,

    Is it possible for an inscription in Rock to dictate weathering patterns?

    Have you considered...A companion document to the KRS being built into the NT???

    No need to answer second question. Just speculation.

    Anthony Warren

    1. Anthony,

      The simple answer to rock impacting weathering is yes, it can and does. The harder and more durable the rock type, the lesser the impact of weathering if all variables are the same. A hard rock weathers more slowly than a softer rock in the same weathering environment.

      Not sure what you mean by a companion document to the KRS in the Newport Tower, but there is no question they are connected by the long range alignment that starts with egg-shaped and notched keystones that point to the KRS. What, if anything else there might be has yet to be discovered.

    2. An inscription could become exaggerated, distorted, faded, or obliterated... Depending upon inscription depth, rock composition/durability, localized weather conditions? Any other variables one should consider?

      I am well aware of the connections between the KRS and NT. Patrick's work is BRILLIANT!

      Thank you,

      Anthony Warren

    3. Due to the resemblance of the side view of the KRS to a stone in the masonry of the NT, and some other factors, which have been debunked since...I was speculating another version of the KRS could be built into the tower. To be found when it would eventually collapse, or be taken down. Similar to the time capsule placed in the St. Louis Arch.

      Anthony Warren

    4. Anthony,

      That's certainly a possibility, but I hope we never find out! I want to Tower to be standing tall and proud long after my grandchildren's grandchildren are gone.

    5. Anthony,

      Patrick has done some brilliant work and I've implored him to write a book about it that would be game-changer as far as the discussion goes. What I like are that numbers, geometry and astronomy, like rocks, are not subjective, they just are.

      Pat's work in mostly math and math doesn't lie. It will give the debunkers fits and you know what they'll do?

      Go silent...

    6. Patrick has probably written several books if, all of his posts were broken down, compiled, and edited.

      Jim Egan is a Photographic Genius. Mr. Egan deserves high honors, and praise for his work on the NT.

      Soon, Professor Williams may have to answer to the person signing his paycheck, and the governing body of the University. "Why did you drop the ball, Dude?"

      I also believe, the Trolls will be reduced to Daffy Duck walking out on stage... CRICKETS!

      "Idiot, Imbecile, Mental Patient",

      Anthony Warren

    7. I didn't know Scott had grandkids I have a niece in Germany

    8. Brettany,

      I don't have any grandkids, looking forward to the day though!

    9. You don't seem old enough to have grandkids you look like you are a year old

  15. Follow this link

    Click on "View Full Size"

    Concentrate on the top right corner of the photo. Just above a stone(which happens to resemble the sideview of KRS, second pic in this thread) there is a light brown stone at a slight angle. Clearly visible is a RUNIC NUMBER. Just below the Pentadic number, something else is carved. I am calling it a Religious Expression.

    This is just the tip of the iceberg.

    Welcome to Anthony Vision.

    There is so much more.

    I am not sure if these inscriptions show up at certain angles of light, and shadow due to AGE, Design, or a combination of both.

    A Lowly BA,

    Anthony Warren

  16. Scott,

    I was doing some research on mound builders in Kentucky and I stumbled upon an image of some artifacts: 2 bear teeth and one shell gorget and all of them have a cross engraved into them. The author belief is they are a Maltese Cross but I don't think so. They look exactly like a Templar Cross. Here is a link to the article:

    Let me know what you think.

    Justin Beckstrom

    1. Justin,

      A Maltese Cross is a specific kind of Templar Cross and yes, the crosses depicted on page 104 are Templar style crosses. However, the equilateral cross is an ancient symbol used by Native Americans and other cultures for thousands of years. Like the Cross of Lorraine, which is symbolic of the dragonfly which comes with the life-giving summer rain, the equilateral cross were symbols the Templar's and indigenous people had in common when they started coming to North America in the Twelfth Century.

  17. I was fascinated by the episode about Mystery Hill and Stonehenge. That the young man could draw a line between the two that could be extended to the area in the Middle East where the Phoenicians lived is very interesting as well, but where does the other end of the line point? I have always thought that there were other civilizations in North America that had no documentation available. There is a record of sailings from Central America that is very old but you have to take it on faith.

    1. Mama Kitty,

      Kelsey's alignment continue's southwestward and goes through Poverty Point in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River. It then goes to interesting places in Central America. To me, it represents a common thread among civilizations worldwide who all paid close attention to the heavens.

  18. Robert Lee BakerMay 6, 2019 at 6:20 AM

    ...this isn't how peer review works.

    1. Robert,

      This is how it works in the professional world. You don't need to explain how the academic world does it as I've seen it fail time and time again.

    2. Robert Lee BakerMay 6, 2019 at 8:18 AM


      This isn't how it works in the professional world. I'm in the field. It definitely doesn't work by seeking those who will validate opinions.

      "Hey buddy, will you write a guest post for my blog telling people how I'm right?"

      Submit your research, methodology, interpretations and conclusions to a peer review journal and let the chips fall where they may. Submit it to some sort of double blind study.

      By the way, claiming the field fails "time and time again," sounds immature. Is it actually failing or just refusing to acknowledge your findings? We'll never know unless you do.

    3. Robert,

      My Kensington Rune Stone geological work was reviewed in writing by eight different geologists who had questions, but concluded the research was valid. This is just one more unsolicited review who reached the same conclusion.

      Academia doesn't hold a moratorium on how professional peer review is conducted. If it makes any difference five of the geologists who reviewed the KRS work were academics.

      You say this isn't how the professional world works because you are in it. Can you enlighten us on the professional work you do?

  19. Congrats...Saw your show for the first time on Travel Channel.(5/6/2019). Solid evidence for Templars/Masons in America presented with clear and comprehensive language. Looking forward to a documentary. Your work changes everything.

    1. Hsaive,

      I'm glad you're enjoying the shows. We have a lot more Templar/Masonic content coming. The Kensington Rune Stone has a lot more to say. For 120 years now, scholars tried to tell the artifact what it was supposed to be, instead of following proper scientific method and let the stone tell them what it is.

      Stay tuned...

  20. In Heavner Oklahoma there is what is believed to be a Rune stone its the Rune stone state park. Please investigate this an do your part to prove or disprove these stones .

    1. Unknown,

      We did an episode where I examined the Heavener Stone. It's an amazing inscription and if you keep watching the show you'll see it.

  21. Scott,

    You may already know this...
    On Google Earth, if you pull a line from the Scottish Rite Headquarters in D.C. to Akhenaton's old city Armana, the line runs directly through the center of the Newport Tower.

    BTW....I finally read your book 'Akhenaton to Founding Fathers". Also read William Mann's recent "Sacred Bloodlines and Secret Treasures". Really good stuff!!! Absolutely amazing what they DON"T teach us!


  22. Dear Mr. Wolter, I've been watching America Unearthed for a long time. I'm watching your new episode now.

    I'm particularly fascinated by the "cross" you call "the triple cross". Could that actually be an early Jerusalem cross? -- and do you find, as I suspect, a connexion with the Cross of Lorraine?

    1. Rev Antonio,

      The Jerusalem cross is equidimentional with additions in the four quadrants, so I don't think there is any connection there. Go to my most recent blog post and you'll a diagram of the Hebrew Tree of Life and I think it'l make sense to you.

      The Cross of Lorraine is different thing symbolically, at least in the esoteric world of Gnostic teachings.